“Mind prioritize depth over breath”
On 28th of March 1728, a coffin was carry in to the Westminster abbey, in it there was a body of man who already held high office, although he wasn’t a politician. He although managed to hanged a person, although he wasn’t a member of judiciary. His coffin was carry out by the famous Lord Chancellor, two dukes and three arils even he wasn’t a priest. Still reading this paragraph you can’t recognize who was that man actually. That man was Isaac Newton.
I admire even the people who are buried in Westminster abbey. I read that all noble kings, royals, influential and even today’s politician just ended their life in the most fascinating royal place. That place actually wasn’t reserved for any common guys like newton in fact. But newton wasn’t an ordinary man. Even if someone is interested to go down to wish a good luck in peace on newton’s grave yard, one will soon observed these words in front of his stone “Hic depositum est, quod mortale fuit Isaaci Newtoni”. These Latin words translated as ‘Here lies that which was mortal of Isaac Newton’.
Newton is described as first philosopher of science, and that’s the way we honor him but certainly he wasn’t the last one. In Westminster abbey’s church, right in front of statue of newton, one can finds the floor names like ‘Michel faraday’ or ‘Paul Dereck’. The floor itself inscribe the equation and behavior of an atom to the honor of Westminster abbey.
It’s perhaps no coincidence that all the great nations, honors there leading scientists in this way. In all our history of mankind, men and women who explained the true spirit of nature from decoding of DNA to the vast universe of atoms. These people provide us the physics that a modern science could ever conceive and transformed the communication with World Wide Web. This article will describe how modern science took his birth from the first spark of first mankind. It will also introduced all those people who contributed their whole life, just to define the contemporary character of science development. Explorations from the vast ocean depth to the discoveries of unknown skies of universe. In terms of saying civilized society, how does science played his part to make humankind much intelligent in learning behavior and social interactive of modern technological development.
From any scientific achievement and discoveries history, mankind learned and perceived true meaning of genuine inspirations and rising innovation girds. I always, concealed a strange prospect on the birth of science. Scientists throughout history, believed in an idea, they developed theories to argue for centuries in their researches, they experiment these theories in practical formulations, they understand and explained the behavioral science of theoretical equation and at last they were to be curious having achieving the answer for their ‘conclusion of an idea’. In every book of science it is known as ‘Scientific Method’. Its characteristic are the bedrock for the modern science. What is the important part of this discussion that reveals us, a similarity of all great scientists from East to West, used ‘Scientific Methods’ to embraced their achievement as well as their affection for discovering true nature of life.
All my years of studying basic science in school, modern scientific calculation at college level, engineering at university level and even still, I believe that all roots of modern science achievement stops at Albert Einstein. A lot of people ignore my believe due to their own contradictory opinion about science, but whatever I discovered about science can be pronounce in one word ‘Amazing’.
Coming back to interesting point of Newton’s life; that even his own mother wasn’t expecting his child to survive even 15 weeks later. He wrote all those bad deeds which he would always regret in his life from the age of 19, including ‘Threatening his father and mother’. He never had the opportunity to live with his family, at the age of three he was sent to live with his grand-mother. Isaac Newton never believed in world-based logics rather than following the guidance of God. In some historical events, Newton proclaimed that God has chosen him to interpret the Bible. He proposed that world would end no sooner than 2060’. During his time as member of British parliament, he only spoke once, just to ask someone to close the window. He owned more books of history rather than on science. He studied actually for law degree rather than for science. Newton was notorious for his bad temper and conflicts with other people. During his happy life, most people had heard newton saying ‘”If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” In short newton had obsessions, was malicious and prone out-raged.
During my research for writing this article, I never went through newton’s science rather than his began of science. Because there was something quite extraordinary about the way he worked. I would explain his beginning, from tiny little concept; in an age, when people still believed in magic and magician would performed their little tricks in European eras; Newton derived pure mathematical framework with which investigate the real nature of world. Newton was born in a country where different transitions were taking part in society; armies were fighting wars and people were hunting for witches but in fact that was a pure pre-planned time of history where people weren’t focusing on the rational reasons or logics of practical instruments.
Even at that interval, fire was common mechanism but folks were more curious about the nature of light. Everyone already knew by then about prison splitting of colours of light, but the important question was how and why? This all process started from Islamic Scholars to the ancient Greek theorists. How come a light is coming from the thousand miles of sky, in straight path so perfectly? Newton before presenting his answer for this question, he observed that light consist of diverse colours but supposing a barrier (Slate) between the prism and the wall, which would results the separation of colours and appearance of particular Colour and second prism behind slate would diverge the particular Colour onto the wall; He studied the deflection of light to test his hypothesis. Observations were simple and logical, when Slate would have green Colour, the second prison would show green light on to the wall. And so it applies with every changing Colour. Newton’s observation about Nature of light was simple enough; that light is combination of pure different colours. It means colours themselves are the basic building of light. That was genius approach in terms of common sense.
Newton was merely the first person who interrogated the nature, using the principles; now what we call them as ‘Scientific Methods’. In other words He observed the world, came up with countless theories, explained what he discern then he tested experiments whether he was precise. The power of this approach is to remove pre-conceive ideas and in doing so delivery’s more accurate description of natural world. But all clarity of his thoughts and techniques, newton himself unaware of significant of his work.
During my research through internet, I came up with some strange newton’s one of the master written manuscript. It is the book, where first time ‘Law of gravitation’ was written by own hands of Newton. Every person doing undergraduate most have to learn that law in fact before graduating. That manuscript not only give us the importance of those law but also witness about newton’s great art of mind. Newton’s manuscript also tell us that how he was enquiring about sharing ideas and knowledge by writing it and proclaiming those ideas in to the minds of pre-occupied minds of people.
Newton was not good enough. He was man of contradictions, giving where he lived in the middle of 17th century. He understood the cost of reason so he was a man undoubtedly feet in both world mystical and scientific. My point can be proved through one reason, he was astrologist, physicist, and mathematician even alchemy as well. He was a man who understood himself as a visionary. He says “the nature of things can naturally and securely, deduced by their rope ration one upon other rather than upon senses”. By which he meant how nature works only a way and how it appears; by understanding the logic and reason of its occurrence, to explain what one’s has observed.
It seems clashing to me that ‘Scientific Method’ took long postponement to reveal, after all Newton just lived on earth few hundred years ago. Heart of problem; world is complicated and always remain in motion but newton himself shown us the way that ‘it is easier to understand if one simplify the world’s complicated structures’. It is possible to deduce the nature of light to get rainbow. It a systematic logic in the history of science which shed light on the true laws of nature, construction of matter to orbits of planets. It already improves our life through its applications and technological development. Even after 250 years after Isaac Newton discovery of ‘Scientific Methods’ we came to from our darkest period of age to the most civilized fashion of life.
Even in my previous article ‘Birth of Divisive Science and Frankenstein Notion’, I wrote how science came in the middle of both World Wars. In 1940s conveys of supplies and food bringing from United States to Britain, were facing harsh situation from German U-boats, even Churchill observed that they might lose the war. At that period salvation; came not in the form of new weapon system or aircrafts but from the hands of few dedicated people even I would say genius who had some papers and little dedication. Even still reader doesn’t understands my sentences and my finger point. During the world war 1st, cryptography came into exist by some most talented people of Britain. All of intercepted German’s codes on radio were brought for analysis where they were decrypted on daily basis. Even still today, I am much curious about art of cryptography which is also a part of science. It’s a solving of cross-road and playing like a chess on the board. People who were working as cryptographers were enjoying the breaking the codes, even they doesn’t care about the impact of war which was fought on the front line with bombs dropping and sound of gun fires. The Importance of cryptography came from a very simple idea. Despite of man-power; tanks, ships, aircrafts were coordinated by only one mean of medium which still doesn’t replace. Yes! Radio, which played an essential part in any art of war. Radio communication was the only way of contact between German Nazi’s high command and the forces fighting on the front lines. Scientists during those war time, doesn’t have the time to spend on newton law of theories or find the reason of why apple falls down. But in anyway, they propose the introduction of cryptology. Even Da Vinci had been the mysterious inventor of codes but with the same concept of ‘Scientific Methods’ scientists developed advance technique of decrypting of German radio interceptions. And with same decrypted communication, Allied forces could anticipate the next movement of German Forces.
Most of the general traffic were decoded by a machine known as ‘enigma’, used by allied forces. Alan Turing, British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, computer scientist and philosopher developed this cipher machine. It was used for almost every radio code breaking during war time by allied forces. But after the meantime, Germans found out about enigma’s mechanism of code breaking so Germans change the code patterns. During few researches in cryptology, I found out that there was another machine which was developed for high-level code breaking coming from berlin; after enigma’s leak. It also uses same principles like enigma, but it was far more complicated. Berlin decoding pattern of ‘enigma’ was known as ‘Lorenzo Cipher’ by German Nazi. It was capable of sending out a secret message in 1.6 million billion ways (1,600,000,000,000,000). The Allied forces called it ‘Turing’. According to Captain Reginald, who worked at intercepting German communication during World War II; there were three levels of code breaking used by Britain against German Nazi. It might not have been conceivable without a man for ‘Scientific Approach’; named as ‘Bill Tutte’ who reduced the complex into simple equation. Despite of being mathematician, he spent 3 months during war times, in cracking the codes. I suppose, it’s a big deal for a common mind to imagine an extra-ordinary work achievement done by these sort of people. But fortunately I think, it’s just a simple common sense based on meek logics what we call now ‘Scientific Approach’.
In the history of covert World War History, German Nazi High Command transmitted same Turing based pattern coded signal; later on it was intercepted by allied forces. It was a point for Bill, to crack-in the code pattern of entire encrypted system. His approach was scientific because he observed that messages were similar, not identical and they used same key for encrypting it. He knew that there must be repeated patterns, and what if he could find those patterns with careful observation then it might be possible to crack the code using general formulation. Off course “Nothing is impossible”, Bill Tutte” eventually did find the decryption pattern. Decryption pattern was hidden in a prime number “41”. His hypothesis suggested that this number be set-up as possible to first tunny’s scrambling wheels. And this hypothesis resulted correct in almost every decryption of messages. The Nazis must have been highly confident that Lorenzo could not be broken and were probably right to believe this what with its massive encryption abilities. One of Tutte’s contemporaries at Bletchley Park in Britain, Jerry Roberts, said that Tutte was one of “the forgotten heroes” of World War II. Roberts later said: “I used to wonder if he was doing anything. My word, he was. (Breaking Tunny) was a most extraordinary achievement.”
Bletchley Park; Allied secret code breaking site during WWII; decoded messages sent by the most senior of the Wehrmacht’s officers – Keitel – and even messages sent by Hitler himself, such was his faith in his “secrets writer”.
I think Bill Tutte, never known how cipher actually worked in encoding German codes. But by using basic binary logics with careful observation on patterns, this motivated him to build a machine based on same German code encryption logics but with opposite pattern of decryption. His machine automatically decode messages in Bletchley Park, as German High Command in berlin transmits the code signals. Bill’s ‘Scientific Approach’ enabled allied to listen every words of German Interception with their deception message. Coming back to Bill, He never imagined himself to be the inventor of ‘Tunny Cipher’, but he loved in problem solving’s and puzzles from his early life. This approach is similar with approaches of Newton, Faraday, Darwin and Einstein. It’s just a simple concept of “how things work”?
Contemporary, there is another man “Richard Borcherds”, who is mathematician specializing in lattices, number theory, group theory, and infinite-dimensional algebras. He is a professor of mathematics at University of California at Berkley. During my research, I found out that he is on his quest of breaking almost uncrack able code. He thinks “About matter, not how they work but how they exists”. From past two years he is trying to solve the problem which lies in the heart of quantum theories. Many of previous scientists already back out from the Quantum Theory headache, but still ‘Richard’ doesn’t give up.
I already talked about ‘Scientific Approach’ a lot but what I read about Richard’s approach is quite the opposite. He describes himself “Watching me working and thinking is quite same like watching me sleeping”. He appeared like doing meditation. He didn’t give up at any point, even spending a month working on an idea and still, it doesn’t work. He highlighted simple concept that, “if we have to do calculation, what calculation do we need to do? That the part of mathematics which takes years and years, maybe centuries”.
“Richard Borcherds” without a question has unusual mind, and way of working, a mind similar to the code breakers, one capable of dedicating years on the end results. It looks like almost uncomprehensive test and understanding the abstract mathematics that underpins the universe. Although his dedication appears to his extreme, but it’s just an element of obsession which shares all scientists at one common believe.
I believe through all these centuries from the beginning of science itself discovered. It appears that science attracted all those people, who shared “Scientific Approach”; from every single part of world (Not east or west). Prof. Simon Baron-Cohen, who studies psychology of scientists; in his book “Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Social Cognitive Neuroscience” – 2013; mentioned that almost of the scientists shared similar characteristic of human behavior and cognitive nature. He says “Many people in the population; are quite happy to flied from one topic to another. They are happy to chat about something, but they don’t want to go around like for many hours”. “But with scientific Mind, although one does really want to stay on one topic and work on it with deep under consideration.”
Even I am quite positive and agree that it’s not wrong for being working and thinking on same topic rather than scattering the mind in different circle topics. Mind work on prioritizing depth over breath. I really explained big reference with short phrase. But most of societies doesn’t really believe in thinking about one thing, or even careful observation. They perceive that one who thinks about one object all the time, become unaware of priority or even himself, so it’s not better to be in lost. I never putted it up this question to my audience directly but I asked them indirectly “What they really want to think about all the time?” Most of the answer I observed were quite specific to my above conclusion.
As part of Simon’s research has shown another trail which describe most common among scientists, “Attention to Detail”. Yeah its quite right without any argument, that scientist do have more careful observation analysis with little details as compare to a common person’s. We are considering this a big different between psychological process between same mental capability and diverse ‘detail observant’. One stage of hypothesis, using questionnaire process of most common discussion, He developed a process called “Systemizing process”. This questions list is a drive and ability for one who can understand how things work. From weather to road maps; from politics to car engines. List of question contain some even odd questions like ‘How you interesting in electric wiring in your house?’ For me it depend about answer this sort of questions. Even there are a lot of people who demand ‘screw toolkit’ on their birthday wishes from their parents during their juvenile.
If some reader knows about ‘Autism’, during the time of writing this article I did some research (Research Article – Autism); it’s a character of describing a personality with respect of attention given to small details. People with autism, does have the problem in interacting with social but they do have more observative ability to the smallest niceties. They really like to guise for the combinations, series and patterns just like a scientist. These people do have different occupations or interest in different subjects rather than science, but they often does experiments and their effects to conclude their results.
In most of the part of my research, a question was pop up in my mind about ‘Whether all scientist consist of autism behavior?’ It’s absolutely incorrect to say that ‘autism’ is character representation for the scientist. We merely can compare or label autism with science. It’s just a word describe the character of attention to the smallest detail by an individual. According to ‘Prof. Simon Baron-Cohen’; it is evidently proved that “Unspecific measures relevance, scientists are storing midway between people with autism and rest of population”.
Uncertainly, we really can’t find about characters developed-in a scientists, or behavioral science and logics in an individual mind; whether it’s careful observative skills, quick math’s, IQ level or even creativity of an artist as well. Being a collective mind merely doesn’t help to build a trail to conclude whether, “Scientific Approach” is a behavioral Learning or not. In other words ‘Scientists doesn’t obligatory opens up electrical toys to find how it works during his childhood’; it’s just the reason for developing a theory to answer our question about ‘Scientific Approach’ specifically.
Retrospectively, scientist’s allegiance to their subject may sometimes appears quirky or acentric. Again I wasn’t satisfied my conclusion and Henry Cavendish; chemist and physicist of 17th Century came into my research during this article; He was described as Shy, absent-minded and bad verbal communicator. Cavendish mostly worked on measure, weigh and classify as many elements as he could. Like every scientist of across English Channel, he was wealthy and he could invest on his experiment as he want and the way he want. His experiments on electricity, were only published a century after they were performed, when Maxwell rediscovered them in 1879. He really discovered all the properties of hydrogen. Despite of having no idea during his age, he continued his quest for to quantify hydrogen, until he could describe every aspect of existence. He did want to know how this ‘Inflammable air’ (Hydrogen) reacts with other things, by experimenting hydrogen with air (Oxygen) in combustion reaction in flask, where water bubbles appeared on the inner side of glass flask. His only curiosity about world designed him to perform experiment into possible way. Even he concluded wrong explanation for this experiment, but he was correct with process of each stride. He never accepted that water is consist of 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms. His most of theories were the assumptions on “alchemy ideas” rather than logics of modern science. Even it was a non-sense ideas in his mind but he was a great experimental scientist. His ideas about how nature works were completely wrong but his results for measuring and quantifying the objects were marked correct.
In first published scientific journal, Editor Henry Oldenburg; who wrote “the purpose of scientific journal allows scientists to impart knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the grand design improving Natural knowledge and perfecting all philosophical art and sciences”. When history talks about Oldenburg, who provided a platform where for the first time scientists could widely share their findings and new methods with others (Including people). He presented notion for sharing the knowledge with others via organized written way. Going through archives of journal, one could now easily finds every names of people who really contributed their part of achievement in any of the national journal throughout globe. History of science is different from political or art, reason is simple; because science history is rest in peace for everyone to read and understand the concept about natural phenomenon.
Nearly 350 years later, after the publication of first scientific journal printed, still scientific societies from all over the world publishes the scientific philosophic journals. The purpose of scientific journal represents the idea of sharing knowledge with others, rather than one keeping to himself. If these historical journal weren’t written, John Tyndall could never publishes the first piece of research about “Greenhouse effects” in the Royal Society of Science Journal in 1861. John also explained how he got the results during his research, so that anyone else reading his paper (Scientific Journal); could modify his concepts in future or even recheck the past results. With same rule of ‘Scientific Approach’; scientists always rechecks and verifies the past results and accuracy for the betterments in future. Even scientists who died 100 years ago, their results about theories or performed experiments on different apparatus could be built in future and verify one simple theory.
I mention this process, so that one could easily understands about science and their controversial part too. Scientific journals from different region can easily testify the correct map of the discovery of any element in past. One easily can ignore the double sighted concept and he can understand the historical science, easily if he go-through Scientific Journals. Scientific journals never proves or testify any opinions but results. It represent the communication of one scientist with another one. It’s a forum which tends to continue the debate. This is the main outcome of ‘How Modern Science’ developed from time to time. Publishment is the best way of sharing the results or work done by an individual like myself; writing an article.
Since philosophical journal-entry emerged in 1665; thousands of journal been published on every aspect of science. Scientific journal were kept in different libraries around the world, so that they can be trusted by the readers. The content inside a journal is always based on facts rather than critic or opinion. This remarkable idea of publishing journal is a great idea for keeping the history up-to-date. These Scientific Journals torture very great minds and help us to separate good science from bad science. In-results, scientists give their meaning to the latest research and publishes them to current journal societies. Still there are famous Scientific Journal who publishes their facts in different shapes, Journal “Nature” is one of them; it’s one of the greatest Scientific Journal of world according to Pew Review. These scientific journals are reviewed according to their scientific content publishment every year.
“No paper has any end”; logically throughout history time, every new scientific journal has been created based on the previous related journal-entry. Intellectuals throughout world really test these journals and apply their common applications; from Toyotas new technological feature in car to unmanned aircraft. Now even we call globalization from common point, Scientific Journal already contributed his part in our society to perceive and share the knowledge by any platform. Nowadays if any new research would done, its authenticity would be the journal publishment; so that people from different society could really test it and even feel it (e.g. Global Warming, Nuclear hazards, Infection spreading…).
Lately; Pew Review attempt to develop and introduce an additional level of Riga, a process of discovery; allowing us to distinguish between tested hypothesis and speculations. Some reader might have been confused about Scientific Journal and A book. In a book, one can only finds the opinion of author, it could be possibly assume that one could never going to agree with content of author, or vice versa. Book always represents ‘statement of an opinion’. Whereas scientific journal has level of checking through different experts and other related scientific people; who could be sure of no mistake or error in the content of “Scientific Journal”. In other words, Scientific Journal represent the preeminent shot of how we look world by given subject in reality.
Talking about Newton’s rational approach to publishing scientific journal, science never have any doubts in its subject comparing any other field of art or history. In science, “an experiment is an experiment” whether it’s newton’s deflection of light or ‘LHC proton accelerating and collision experiment recently done by European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Franco-Swiss border near Switzerland. There are team of people dedicated to detail measurements, as Cavendish did with his “flammable air”. And same process of logics by ‘Bill Tutte’ in cryptography machine invention. These are simple principles yet they hold great power. World’s half of Particle Physicist (Ten thousand I would say) gathered at one place (CERN Research Center in Geneva), just because of tantalizing the process what they might discover before collision. Scientists gathered in group always build a common outcome expectation even before experimentation.
In July 2012, a new particle “Higgs boson” or common known as ‘God particle’ been discovered. This sub-atomic particle jigsaw; which is responsible for the building block of universe; has been in motion since the beginning. This particle was named after the British scientist “Peter Higgs”; who worked on this research scene 50 years earlier. The discovery is behind the idea of CERN, but the reason that we have to be confident is that pain-taking affords has been done to the design of experiment. Even funding for two different groups of scientists on exactly on same thing. Both teams weren’t allowed to discuss, even with each other. One group was known as ‘Atlas’ (Consist of 160 Institutes globally) and second was known as CMS. Both performed their experiment independently, without any help of each other by material or by knowledge. The interesting part was that ‘they both designed same experiment’. This proves that there might be something interesting as comparing with ‘Peter Higgs’ 50 years of research and investigation.
All these great discoveries and inventions of unknown, never happened accidently but with reason; I suppose. Nobel minds are worthy of investigation and understanding their ideas could lead to great success. Science built our modern civilization and our minds. Science helped us throughout period of time to understand the nature.
Content of the article has been prepared with research conducted on below mentioned websites and links.
For further Information related with the research conducted in preparing the article; below mention download links for the research articles for additional help
- Henry Oldenburg: The First Science-Journal Editor
- On the origin of ‘the greenhouse effect’: John Tyndall’s 1859 interrogation of nature
- Theory of Proton-Proton Collisions James Stirling IPPP, Durham University
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