“Science Develop Factual Podium In The Arc of Civilisation and Humanity”
Throughout centuries and decades, Britain remains substantial part of designation for great scientists and inventors who initiated their ideas and experimental concept into a practical execution.
This ‘belt of enormous discoveries and inventions’ were not the only results of scientific experiments and repetition with different angles but it existed with huge gaps of years. Science played a role with different characters and it took important part in innovation of modern society. Whether travelling of science begins with fire ignition done by Homo sapiens or Greek experiment on gold.
Science traveled through all the time periods on the earth from renaissance of Europe, Greek Scholars like Plato Who defined Science with philosophical prospect or Muslim scholars like Al-Brunei who calculated mathematically radius of earth 500 years ago with same respect Eratosthenes, a scientist of ancient Greece, made the first accurate measurement of the Earth’s diameter . On the other side of world; Ancient Chinese scientists who developed traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine through empirical observation and scientific experimentation. Imagine the curiosity of Greek scholars who intend to begin search for converting cheap metals into gold but failed to do so but their study on various field help us in Earth science in locating fossil fuels, such as oil and mineral resources. As century passed science changes its shape from philosophy of ancient Greek into Modern Science. In other words the main birth of modern science remains at one place as justifiable, that place we called Great Britain. A REBIRTH PLACE OF SCIENCE AGAIN The Ideas of creating a monster played important role in British Science. Britain remains the most controversial region for science through history. There is no physical explanation for these controversial theories of science and until this day most of the researchers’ experiments remains controversial within their own science. The most important fact behind these controversies’ remain locked that; even today most of people are getting benefits from those theories which were declared fake or impossible a century ago. It’s quiet interesting that From Charles Darwin’s Evolutionary Theory which transforms humanity into new era of modern science; To Alexander Fleming’s Discovery of Penicillin which Provide Treatment Of bacteria to Michael Faraday’s invention of electric motor and in other words “FATHER OF ELECTRICITY” . These Great discoveries and invention evenly now remain the basic platform for the advance modern science but at the time of its birth, they remained in doubts and suspicions. From point of dot to the distance of vast atoms; it introduced not a quantitative science but introduce a new way of learning the elements with their qualities and their properties. From the contribution of steam engine to huge jets, Britain kept a vital part of contribution in global science and technology even today. While the Britain remained a location of discoveries, its most of the parts of science even remain confuse for the modern scientists. Even today Science and Scientists treated with suspicious at some level and to find the ground reality behind the curtain of stage, we should have to go back to the time where all this began. In Earlier 19th century, London was a place for opportunity for intellectual individuals and revolutionaries too. Whether these individuals were from an ARTISTIC BACKGROUNd or belong to LOVE OF SCIENCE they remained busy to try again and again, they experiments in which they got to be failed and sometimes embarrassed by the public. But they remain in motion of repetition and few of them took centuries to make themself correct in their prospect in front of audience. In those days scientists were called as a NATURAL PHILOSOPHERS or poet. The reason is that they indulge themself with logical reasoning and they made day and night of their life equal to change the fate of whole globe. Lectures of great scientists were attended by thousands of new learners and scholars in big auditoriums and halls of Britain. Science was becoming more popular than poetry. And so experiments and discoveries turn to be more famous than dramatic culture and philosophy of nature. In 1932, popular platform for new scientists was Royal Institution where all most stars rise and shine with bright spectrum like Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952) who discovered the function of neurons in the field of chemistry. He was a genius, arrogant, and man of reason in his mind. He was brilliant in his concept of chemistry. He was known as “commenter of science”. He discovered carbon dioxide with combustion reaction of diamonds with cold oxygen. He proved that diamond, a valuable stuff is solely a carbon made as like dark coal. He performs an experiment which proved that things around us are made up with limited numbers of elements. Nowadays Nuclear Science is a popular as like Tom Cruise and Brad Pit in Hollywood star. But its beginning started before its existence by the name Ernest Rutherford, 30 years earlier. Back in 1911 before the World War I, He performs series of different experiment on atom in university of Manchester. He proved that an atom is devisable particle and it contains a dense particle nucleus with electron revolving around it. It’s a great mystery for 30 years that atom was discovered fully but the properties of component remain unknown (e.g. Neutron) and that’s why nuclear science remained locked within that particle for even two decades. Until 1935, when a new element was discovered U 235 commonly known as Uranium, with its nature of splitting on bombard of neutron with it, it converts into barium 141 and krypton 81 and enormous energy released with it and that changes to ‘chain-reaction’. This process requires 1% of naturally occurring pure uranium which is very impossible in stable state but to enrich the impure uranium, at the same time World War II started. In 1943 much of the work on nuclear science was transferred to United States of America due to war and conflict in Great Britain and Europe. It became a part of Manhattans Project, within two years after that, they were successfully building a nuclear bomb but untested until those were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan on 6th of August 1945.Only 9.6 Gram of matter (Uranium) transform into enormous energy. As bomb detonated, not only the chain reaction of neutron occurs but practically for the first time in the history of science a huge man-made disaster came into sight. With That philosopher of 14th century were proved right that, a time will come when man-made disasters will be discovered with destructions of humanity on large scale, Not only energy clear out entire cities but it causes dangerous health and environmental issues (e.g. radiations, cancer). It proved the fear of Marry Shelly book about FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER correct after a century. Scientist invented a nuclear bomb which is a symbolic representation of Frankenstein monster. In Other words “Science delivered the power to destroy all”. After observing the accident Robert Oppenheimer, Head of Manhattan Project felt. Scientists involved in that project of destruction motivated themself that they altered the war (WORLD WAR) and bring peace into the world but they forgot that they just finished out ten thousands of people in a matter of minutes with their inventions. Development of nuclear bomb War tear-shaded moment in human history because for the first time it was demonstrated that products of human ingenuity could let human to destroy themself with that too and this make a chilling effect on the public attitude of world toward science and it’s discoveries, with conclusion historian concluded that science ended the world war 11 but Once again in the timeline of human history, science had negative impact on the life of common human psych. As we go back to the history of Industrialize Revolution in Great Britain in 18th century, science appear as a potential threat to environment ecology but on the other side it also provided it’s fret benefits to human everyday life. Once again public devalued the great work of science and protested against it, they were suspicious and even hostile against it. They Marched on the street and declared “sin as to become a scientist”. First half of 20th century commonly known as Age of Physics, it was the time of exploring the sub-atomic particles of atom. Second half of 20th century was Age of Biology, Exploration of Science of life. And within the gap between these two times Scientist become “Master of Nature” from rather than dispassionate explorer of things. And at sometimes a new trend or concept began to cultivate in the fields of new science of 20th century which were “Dangerous and Controversial Theories”. Now a days biogenetic and bio-engineering is at its peak as once was nuclear physics was. Crops and vegetable are created in laboratory with some different and extraordinary process involved. They could made our life more flexible that a plant could be modified so that it can never be infected, more production of fruits and vegetable and new breed of seeding and less usage of pesticides in crops during their cultivation and harvesting in the field. It’s a very easy calculation that such type of process can never be done in direct way despite of that; genetic modification process of crops had already shown outstanding results .It’s a précis quality of science that now it can alter or manipulate not only physical or chemical properties of life things but also alter their genetic properties. These fact would be very surprising for the people like Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein if they would thought about this in their own times, Secondly this revolution of biology started 60 years in east Anglo-land of Britain and it’s result can be seen nowadays. CAMBRIDGE is a town in Britain which symbolizes ‘Rich scientific History’. Darwin and Newton always stick to that place for most of their ages. Second uniqueness about this place is that; in 1950 Biology and Physics got their interaction together to transform the understanding about life. J.J Thompson DISCOVERED ELECTRON 1897, Chadwick DISCOVERED NEUTRON in 1932, James Claude Maxwell was professor, they all were doing there time pass in same building. If someone doesn’t know at what place physics and biology, collide with each other, Cambridge can be the perfect Answer for that. In 1950 François Crick and James Watson discovered STRUCTURE OF DNA molecule. They figure out that DNA passes information from generations to generations. DNA was far more isolated back in 1960s too but it was proof that it carries the message of all living organism in the world. DNA Consist of combination of Sugars, Phosphate group and Nitrogen. It was very extraordinary fact for the scientists that all of three elements could be exists in one component and could provide a vast opportunity of wide open door for life. François Crick performs to build a physical structure model of DNA but it proved as a failure because at that time they need more data and raw information about DNA. But after a period of gap that information came to light via new branch of physics called X-RAY crystallography. They bombarded X-RAYS onto the molecules of DNA and a pattern formed on photographic plate. This enables Franklin to determine the structure of DNA, Like X shape. The Suggestion of Franklin determines the François Crick and James Watson to model an accurate model structure of DNA. In 1952 First Model structure of DNA was presented, it was considered as Half Model. There are four types of Bases in DNA. 1. Adenine 2. Guanine 3. Thymine 4. Cytosine In 1973, Crick published the result; he expressed typical scientific statements that this structure has noble features which are considerable biological interest. On the conclusions of result, sitting in restaurant The Eagle in Cambridge, he concluded his results with these sentences We Discovered the “SECRET OF LIFE”. In fact Crick was right, and unleashed a new door for the modern science. At that the time his result were not much superior or strong enough to be study more in depth but given a general abstract about the endorsement of new branch in biology. In terms of microscopic life, DNA itself was a new world within itself, and it needs to be discovered more at the same time. Remember; at that time science began to transform its shape into new structure. By the early 1970s, much work had been done on genetic codes and structure of different living organism like Plants, Bacteria, Animals but human at some extend. Scientists at that time were very much existed about the outcomes of their results. Their result gave a new possible way to identify each individual genetic and to study their functions and properties. They had now the power to access to the working and mechanism of life itself. At the same Paul Rice, Genetics and present president of Institute of Royal Science was began to start its career at that time “What he did explains physical basis of heredity”. He began to work 20 years after the discovery of DNA. At that time not only public but scientists were aware of new flexibility provided by these science discoveries and technologies that now they could control the basic fundamental molecule which forms life. And within the societies of not only Britain but also at global level; were worried about that issue. Public began to predict new Frankenstein conceptual ideas again in 1980s, they likely to imagine that what if scientists began to make a clone of DNA, And transform it into a bacterial form (cancer) and accidently if that bacteria escaped from the isolated laboratories that might result cancer or dangerous infection within eco-system including human being too. These were the upcoming chaos within a new beginning of science and these arguments were surely valid, based on logical thoughts and legitimate. That was a time of post-nuclear years, governments, countries even between common public were concern again about the science outcomes and related discoveries. Again in the timeline of science, people were expecting something like disastrous (Nuclear bomb) from DNA development. But scientists on the other hand, defend their position with good points. In June 1975, biologist from different parts of the world took up a great president step as well as risk. As scientists were aware of true potential threat and secondly to restore positive image of bio-science, they set up a conference in California in U.S, to establish a set of new proposal of regulations and restrictions on scientific researches and experiments which were enlisted as potential threat for environment or living things. A Draft was presented by those groups of biologist, Title with “POTENTIAL BIOHAZARDS OF RECOMBINANT DNA MOLECULES”. The significance of this event was that this initiative of conference and regulation was never presented by any government, public policies, not even UN but firstly by scientists themselves. Biologist were also concern about the potential biohazard and dangerous working phenomenon of bacterial study and depending upon the level of concern restrictions were made by themselves so that danger risk should be kept under control. Scientists saved themselves by taking this initiative first other than by politicians or governments. This proves another fact of history that, science remains independent from governments, cultures, religions, Art or even societies too. Because it dwells with its own trajectory, paradigm and it had been established on its own platform other than any myths of above mentioned categories. Science remains a subject of reasoning and real facts. Coming back to our point of Bio-genetics, Scientists now began to take initiatives before genetics revolution, but despite of that sometime they failed to control the debates so there is no way (from scientific prospect) to determine a new level of genetically modified crops to be harvest within the field of Britain or elsewhere too. For Scientists GM Crops proved to be more efficient and productive with less infection-catching. They persuade very few part of public to test their GM Crops. Most of the results vary form Geographical locations. But it doesn’t get a stable position because in 1990s, public started anti-GM Crops campaign and protests. These were no issues with any sort of bomb or ballistic hazard within those days, people were now more conscious about environment and ecosystems. There was a third generation after post-nuclear war, they were more sensible with these issues like their grand-parents were. There were new fears that GM-Crops contaminating water-table and putrefying production of fruits and vegetable to be anticipated. Within those period, science was considerably civilized in terms of enlargement and technologies (not with simulation at that time) that’s a reason science never got affect with those urgings but public sectors suffers a lot with that. Framers tend to terminate their crops and reap it. Companies were bound at some level to dump off huge supply of food into ocean which seems to be grown by GM-Crops. At last that might lead into a global instability (Not Crisis). Within public it was famous with new word “Franken-food” in mid 90s. There was/is (Even today) controversial theories about GM-Crops that genes of animals (cow, pig, dog, even jelly fish) were cloned or genetically transformed into plants and crops. Unfortunately, there is no proved theory or absolute clarifications about relationship between crops and animal genes, such their potential risk and if benefits too. Jonathan, a Geologist on GM-Crops in Britain says “at least we have to ask ourselves that what can be done to protect crops in minimum bad way to reduce the causes of infections”. He not only explained a point but it does interlink with back-door research on GM-Crops besides Human Health. So in order to share and increase future of GM-Crops in upcoming years in Britain especially, scientists have to take initiatives to cope down the gap of understanding between them and public. There is good citing that scientists should have to provide logical elucidations with sustainable reason which could be compatible in all the culture and covers the joint aspects of life of public. Like this way, GM-Crop future could be decorated. 1- Fear of Unknown should be removed. 2- Psyche of frank stein is embedding in Britain culture; it has to be forgotten by the people. In fact, Public Engagement is important to do that and that might led to gain confidence and to make a better indulgent between science and the people. As we talk about gaining the confidence, the greatest example for that must be came from the past, as such 200 years earlier from now a scientist who was perceived as more called “DANGEROUS VILLAIN”. In the royal college of surgeons, there stand a big statue of a person called by the name John Hunter. He is famous for his name with different contribution with various titles Scotsman and father of modern medicine. In 1780s John initiated to slog on surgical operations that were late as decades in their birth time. His one of main efforts was the case of John Barley which symbolizes his greatest skills in surgical field of medical sciences. In this case he performed a tumor surgical operation in which he was successful in curing the tumor. But for all brilliancy in medical science, John Hunter was treated with great suspicion and even horror because to perform different experiment he required human corpuses for surgical operations. In 18th Century, stealing of dead man bodies became a common bustle within Britain. New types of organized sources born which tends to steal corpuses from the grave yards and so they were called as grave robber. Grave robbing was made illegal in 1882, because of difficult in nature to describe the crime because dead bodies don’t belong to anyone. Grave Robber flush digs out 9 dead bodies per night and so there were reservations for that within London city because lifting a dead body from the ground wasn’t easy tactic to do. One of the biggest customers for dead bodies was john hunter himself. Even he was arrested with grave robbers once and that particular a bad impression in front of public eye, a man in a street. But with the prospect of science, Hunter transfigured a new way to treat an infections and antidote it. But in public opinion it’s work achievement remain at controversial level. As in other words, in the age of 18th Century John Hunters revolutionized surgical practices for the benefits of every man jack but it had been supposed that his work was provocative in public. So even though he was working in 18th Century but he had some PR (Personal Relationship) Problem. After all, negative remarks and public reactions, Hunter become more afraid and his petrified at certain limit changed to repression, so in order to present his working benefits, he opened museum to display his real intentions to public. His collection is evenly displayed today at Royal College of Surgeons in Great Britain. Hid display explained his researches and work which he had done on corpuses on physiology and surgeries. He evenly discovered some new medicine which could be used in surgical operations. He performed first transplant to animal bird with human teeth. His new way of learning opened the gates of contemporary surgical instrument from dark ages of medical science and in short words he ended up the barbarian science with urbane surgical science. By Inviting people to his museum, Hunter was able to address and confront moral objection to his work and although no body was able to justify the grave robbery, public could see clearly the knowledge that he brought into light. The controversies around John Hunters were different from other doubtful scientific works because Hunter had a specific goal in mind from which nobody can disagree, he wanted to advance medical science rather it was morality that got into a question. And even today after 60 years later, doctors and scientists could face these. Today, it’s not a question of using dead creatures but rather animals in medical experiments of science, most of us disagree on this point due to morality and few of us agree on this limit to cross for the benefits for human beings. Such strength of feelings in today’s society, there are regular protest against medical research institutions and scientists who uses animal for dangerous experimentation all over the globe. Protests relating to animal experimentation aren’t a modern phenomenon, as consider Britain, had long history with protests and animal rights activist. The first Royal Commission in the Use of Animal in Experiments and examination dates back to 1875. In the eyes of majority of Doctors, it’s a necessary evil because animal testing bring more accurate results and side-effects of experiments, It reduces more cost and life to be tested directly onto patients and Lastly it provide a simulation which helps scientists to improve their result next interval. The best way to start an argument on this point is, Thirteen Year Old Shawn Gardner, had been paralyzed since 7 years. His condition is related to PARKINSON DISEASES which is known as DYSTONIA, until in 2006 he went to a pioneering procedure wherein current is passed through electrode deep in his brain. After the procedure, he could be able to talk, participate in everyday life as a child; he could be relieved from paralysis. Dystonia infection is impossible to treat by any medication or therapeutic therapy. But with surgical operation, that could be possible to cure Dystonia. Within a week after operation, Shawn was able to stand and walk again. By any medium, it was a miraculous achievement in prospect of science. So for a second just contemplate, How did that happened? Which probability achieved this picture-perfect result? Research Method behind curing Shawn’s paralyzes treatment remains controversial part; Professor Aziz a surgeon and medical researcher develop a method of curing the Dystonia by performing various trials on macaws, which had deliberately given Parkinson disease. To make it happened, less than 100 of macaws were used in experiments but many thousands of people can be cured who are dying from Parkinson disease every year. Even upcoming technology could provide easiest ways to operate any disease but it is impossible to get more effective results from animal rather than any artificial technology. It’s a prospect of common sense that animal model can never be replaced with any other sort of cellular or computer modeling or imaging. So for those who disagree on this point, it’s to accept harsh man-made reality but on the other side benefits can be seen in abundance. Human can never be a part of experiments nowadays but they were once, because animal took that place and yes it can be predicted that a technology will come in future when animal will be replaced by another means of technology. So as it’s a prediction, we have to wait until or unless it became a practical example but right now animals are the best and easiest way to perform cynical and risky medical researches. Scientist and Doctors like Professor and Dr Aziz are not embarrassed with what they doing but for them it’s a dignity to serve humanity and cultivate moral for those who are suffering from disease. With Conclusion, Animal-Testing issue reveals an un-satisfied reality of science, In order to generate the advances in the areas of medicine and virus, there are some down-side and difficult decision to be made. The relationship between Science and Public remains complex. In general the science made a foundation of new civilization by new medicine, telecommunication, Air-traveling, computer and information, Combustion engine, Jet fuel, Solar powered technology etc. Even the list of benefits and rewards provided by science will go on and on but such like that a line of suspicion will always sinister there between public and science. Scientific Progress is valuable and vital even. It might be occasionally we reveal a monster from science, indeed a knowledge of an atom given us a nuclear bomb but keep it in mind even that knowledge also opened up so many other opportunities. It’s one of the Important quality of science that science with accusations of all knowledge that one thing is out there, can’t be retracted again we don’t know where it will lead but even the most controversial science pays it dividends in the end. In 1805 Javanio was hanged in Britain, for trying to resituate people using electricity but now we found a machine a do exactly the same thing all over the place. In case of heart- attack we use machine known as “Defibrillator” which based on same idea which javanio presented before he was hanged for that. So we can say that it ‘bring people back from the dead’. So he wasn’t a frank stein after all.
- BBC Science Britannica
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References Of Content
- Britannica Science Online
- Britain Science TV Series 01 E01
- Google Images
- Daily Newspaper (UK)
- Royal Institution Of Science (UK)