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QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY COULD CHANGE EVERYTHING

With the egoless interest of someone really passionate about his craft, Martin Hellman explained to me the limitations of the cryptographic system he helped create and how Dif e-Hellman encryption was being picked apart by modern researchers. So he’s entirely credible when he says that cryptography faces some surprising challenges.

He told me that in 1970 there was a major breakthrough in factoring, called continued fractions. The dif culty involved in factoring large numbers is what makes cryptographic systems so complex, and therefore dif cult to crack. Any advance in factoring reduces the complexity of the cryptographic system, making it more vulnerable. Then in 1980, a breakthrough pushed factoring further, thanks to Pomerance’s quadratic sieve and the work of Richard Schroeppel. “Of course, RSA [computer encryption] didn’t exist in 1970, but if it did, they would have had to double key sizes. 1980, they had to double them again. 1990 roughly, the number eld sieve roughly doubled the size of numbers again that we could factor. Notice, almost every 10 years—1970, 1980, 1990—there’s been a doubling of key size required. Except in 2000, there was no advance, no major advance since then.”

Some people, Hellman said, might look at that pattern and assume mathematicians had hit a wall. Hellman thinks differently. He invited me to think of a series of coin ips. Would I assume, he asked, that after coming up heads six times in a row, it was a certainty that the next ip would be heads?

The answer, of course, is absolutely not. “Right,” said Hellman. “We need to worry that there might be another advance in factoring.” That could weaken existing cryptographic systems or render them useless altogether.

This might not be a problem right now, but Hellman thinks we should be looking for backup systems for modern crypto in the event of future breakthroughs.

But it’s the possibility of quantum computing, and with it, quantum cryptanalysis, that could actually break every system that currently relies on encryption. Today’s computers rely on a binary 1-or-0 system to operate, with light and electricity behaving as they should. A quantum computer, on the other hand, could take advantage of quantum properties to function. It

Another advance in factoring could weaken existing cryptographic systems or render them useless altogether.

Continue reading QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY COULD CHANGE EVERYTHING

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Predictive Analysis in Data Mining

Whether it is called data mining, predictive analytics, sense making, knowledge discovery, or data science, the rapid development and increased availability of advanced computational techniques have changed our world in many ways.

Good analysts are like sculptors. They can look at a data set and see the underlying form and structure. Data mining tools can function as the chisels and hammer, allowing the analysts to expose the hidden patterns and reveal the meaning in a data set so that others can enjoy its composition and beauty.

Data mining, on the other hand, is a highly intuitive, visual process that builds
on an accumulated knowledge of the subject matter, something also known as
domain expertise. While training in statistics generally is not a prerequisite for
data mining, understanding a few basic principles is important.

Throughout the data mining and modeling process, there is a fair amount of user discretion. There are some guidelines and suggestions; however, there are very few absolutes. As with data and information, some concepts in modeling are important to understand, particularly when making choices regarding accuracy, generalizability, and the nature of acceptable errors.

It really is true with predic- tive analytics and modeling that if it looks too good to be true it probably is; there is almost certainly something very wrong with the sample, the analysis, or both. Errors can come from many areas; however, the following are a few common pitfalls.

This point also highlights the importance of working with the operational personnel, the ultimate end users of most analytical products, throughout the analytical pro- cess. While they might be somewhat limited in terms of their knowledge and understanding of the particular software or algorithm, their insight and per- ception regarding the ultimate operational goals can signi cantly enhance the decision-making process when cost/bene t and error management issues need to be addressed.

Some events are so unique or rare that they are referred to as “Black Swans.” “True” Black Swans cannot be predicted or anticipated; and by extension, they cannot be prevented or thwarted. More recently, though, the concept of “Anticipatory Black Swans” has been introduced. In contrast to the True Black Swans, an Anticipatory Black Swan “can be known beforehand” as com- pared to “what truly is a surprise.”6 Like data mining generally, the proposed approach to both types of Black Swans is to, “ask the right question at the right time (and be wise enough to understand the response or appreciate the signs)…[which] could lead to success in the matter of anticipating what can be anticipated, and at least understanding sooner the impact of what cannot be anticipated.”

It is important that we clearly recognize what these tools can and cannot accomplish, though. Instead, it is all about increasing the likelihood that a desired outcome will occur – at the right time, the First time. These concepts of increased likelihood and timeliness are what make applying it to decision making so enticing.”These are very worthy, yet attainable goals for operational public safety and security analysis. With that objective in mind, I wish you well, and encourage you to go forward and do good.

Continue reading Predictive Analysis in Data Mining

7 Facts Job Seeker should know in searching process


Let’s boil things down to a short list of sound; as you wondered perhaps, you got the interview but the job went to someone else. Moreover, there is no lack of online experts. A recent Google search for “job search tips” yielded a whopping 246 million results. Chances are that there are any number of people who have had responsibilities similar to yours. In order to distinguish from your competition, you require to communicate what you actually have done, how you did it, with whom you interacted and what you actually accomplished in specified time.

Here are the 7 Facts for job seeker to understand before beginning the job search.

  1. There were 3.6 million job openings at the end of 2012. About 80% of available jobs are never advertised.
  2. The average number of people who apply for any given job: 118. Twenty-percent of those applicants get an interview.
  3. Many companies use talent-management software to screen resumes, weeding out up to 50% of applications before anyone ever looks at a resume or cover letter.
  4. On average, interviews last 40 minutes. After that, it usually takes 24 hours to two weeks to hear from the company with their decision.
  5. What do employees look for before making an offer? About 36% look for multitasking skills; 31% look for initiative; 21% look for creative thinking; and 12% look for something else in the candidate.
  6. 42% of professionals are uncomfortable negotiating salary. By not negotiating, an individual stands to lose more than $500,000 by the time they reach 60.
  7. More than half (56%) of all employers reported that a candidate rejected their job offer in 2012.

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4 Common Negotiating Disciplines and Mistakes To Avoid

Think 100 times before you take a decision, But once that decision is taken, stand by it as one man.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Either you are manager or being managed in business, or lawyer by profession or Customer representative in any banking sector. Skills for conducting daily-life Negotiation and bargaining is essential part of your career and as well as personal life. In other words I would say ‘you can attain highest IQ level in your IQ test or maybe a Cambridge university degree in International Relation but still one needs to develop a simple logical principle at inter-personal level in order to become expert in negotiation.

Taking my own example, I had worked on customer-ends positions in IT sector. And it’s my professional experience that; almost every client requires to be attended with considerable level of negotiation. If client is angry because service which company provides has more downtime or maintenance issues, then for sure a good negotiator is required to clear the mist of understanding between client and company to make sure to put alternative deal to client. If client is not happy then senior management is not happy. Continue reading 4 Common Negotiating Disciplines and Mistakes To Avoid